We’ll send you our regular newsletter and include you in our monthly giveaways. PLUS, you’ll receive our exclusive Rider Fitness digital edition with 15 exercises for more effective riding. Subscribe to the Horse Sport newsletter and get an exclusive bonus digital edition! Email* Rosemont, Ontario – Phillip Dutton a three time Olympic competitor and a member of Australia’s Gold Medal Three-Day Eventing Team at the 1996 Athens Olympic Games took first place at the third annual Horse Trails, in front of several hundred fans. Conquering the CIC*** course and the three disciplines he rode to the top finish aboard ‘Tru Luck’. First place was awarded the winning Trophy and prize money. The CIC*** competitive event was held over three days on September 29, 30 & October 01, 2006.Twenty-two International and Canadian competitors at the CIC*** level, and 6 Advanced riders, participated among the beautiful rolling hills just outside of Rosemont, north of Toronto. This is the only CIC *** Three Day Event in Canada and attracted riders of the highest calibre. Total prize money of $10,000 extended the entries to the international field. Top Canadian Penny Rowland, onboard ‘Roundabout’ finished in fifth place amongst a strong field of international competition.Past and present Canadian Equestrian Team Members, who have represented Canada on the world stage, donated the total purse. These talented riders rallied to the cause, and competitors from the 1950s right up to the current team members contributed to provide the purse, including the current ‘Captain Canada’, Ian Millar.Wits End owners Jo Young and Bill McKeen strongly believe, “if we are to produce International Level riders and horses, we must provide world-class competitions.” In order to meet these goals, Jo and Bill have developed their farm to provide facilities necessary for this international world-class event.In 2004, a successful inaugural competition was held for Canadian riders, known as the Wits End Advanced Horse Trials. In 2005, the field was opened to International entries. In 2006 the Event was conducted under the auspices of the FEI, Fédération Equestre Internationale, making it a full International Level Horse Trials C.I.C.*** event, with the goal of hosting a World Cup Qualifier competition in the future.Competitors were impressed with conditions and challenges the course offered. Phil Dutton thanked the Wits End sponsors and he ‘thoroughly enjoyed himself during the three days” appreciating the “picturesque and challenging course”, designed by US Olympian David O’Connor. SIGN UP Horse Sport Enews More from Horse Sport:Christilot Boylen Retires From Team SportAfter an exemplary career as one of Canada’s top Dressage riders, seven-time Olympian Christilot Boylen has announced her retirement from team competition.2020 Royal Agricultural Winter Fair CancelledFor only the second time in its history, The Royal Agricultural Winter Fair has been cancelled but plans are being made for some virtual competitions.Royal Agricultural Winter Fair Statement on 2020 EventAs the Province of Ontario starts to reopen, The Royal’s Board and staff will adhere to all recommendations put forward by government and health officials.Government Financial Assistance for Ontario FarmersOntario Equestrian has recently released this update of several financial assistance packages available, including those for farm business.
Moscow’s political-military leadership places growing emphasis on long-range stand-off precision strike systems as a key element in its ongoing modernization program, complementing efforts to strengthen “pre-nuclear” deterrence and offering additional conventional capabilities. One emerging pattern is to equip Russia’s naval forces, the Military-Maritime Fleet (Voyenno-Morskoy Flot—VMF), with the latest Tsirkon hypersonic cruise missile system, which reportedly can reach a speed of Mach 9, with a maximum range of more than 1,000 kilometers. The defense ministry recently announced that these strike systems will be placed on the newest frigates entering service in the Pacific Fleet. Nevertheless, like the effort in recent years to boost the strike capability of the VMF by mounting the Kalibr cruise missile system on surface ships, the plans for the Tsirkon include both frigates and submarines, which will extend across several of the VMF fleets (Lenta.ru, June 3, 2020; see EDM, December 11, 2019).The Pacific Fleet will receive three new Project 22350 frigates by 2025; each of these will be armed with the Tsirkon missile system. The defense ministry plans the first of these, the Admiral Amelko, to arrive in the Pacific Fleet in 2023, with the additional two frigates entering service in 2025. This forms part of a wider plan to introduce Tsirkon-capable frigates in other fleets. A total of eight such frigates are planned, with three ships each for the Pacific and Northern Fleets and two for the Black Sea Fleet. The final four of these frigates will be fitted with 24 vertical launchers instead of the standard 16. The eight “Admiral” series of frigates are tasked with naval grouping protection, communications and counter-terrorism as well as peace-support missions and functions. Their armament allows them to offer air defense for other ships, support amphibious landing, and to strike various land and sea targets. They will be built using stealth technology using the most advanced composite materials, with an overall effort to reduce their radar visibility (Izvestia, June 10).The future Pacific Fleet Admiral Amelko was laid down with Admiral Chichagov last spring, with construction due to begin this year. The underlying defense planning involved is based on increasing Russia’s military capability in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR). As Moscow-based defense specialist Vasily Kashin notes, the Pacific Fleet annually participates in joint naval exercises with both China and India. Kashin explains, “At least twice a year, the fleet needs to send ships on long trips,” adding that, in parallel, “they should participate in international activities to maintain a presence off the coast of Somalia. Periodically, there are trips to the shores of Southeast Asian states with call at ports, [and] joint exercises with countries such as Vietnam and Singapore” (Izvestia, June 4; Topwar.ru, April 14).These new frigates will replace the old Soviet destroyers and large anti-submarine ships to support Russia’s maritime presence in the APR. Russian military expert Dmitry Boltenkov also acknowledges the utility of these ships in the APR and beyond: “The Pacific Fleet regularly sails in the waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans, sometimes even reaching the Mediterranean Sea. Project 22350 frigates are suited for such missions—they are modern ships with powerful weapons. Their presence in remote corners of the world will make it possible to assess the capabilities of the Russian navy. It is also important that they are reliable and have good seaworthiness. The frigate Admiral Gorshkov, leading a detachment of ships, made a round-the-world trip, during which naval sailors without serious breakdowns covered more than 40,000 nautical miles (at least 74,000 km)” (Izvestia, June 4).While the estimated range of the Tsirkon may be up to 1,000 km, reported test launches from naval platforms to strike ground targets appear more limited to around 500 km. In January of this year, the Admiral Gorshkov launched the Tsirkon from the Barents Sea to strike ground target at a training facility in the Northern Urals. The Tsirkon will prove to be a significant boost to the VMF, since its hypersonic speed would likely overwhelm most air-defense systems (Izvestia, June 4).The defense ministry’s plans to introduce the Tsirkon system also extends to Project 885 and 885M nuclear submarines, with reports that these will be capable of firing from under the ice. While some sources link this test to the Tsirkon, it is likely that it represents a prototype test, with the official testing for such submarine launches still more than two years away. In December 2019, the Severodvinsk (Project 885) allegedly carried out test launches of the Tsirkon from under the ice in the Arctic region (Lenta.ru, June 3). According to Deputy Defense Minister Alexei Krivoruchko, the Tsirkon cruise missile is intended for Project 885, 885M and 949AM submarines, Project 22350 and 23560 surface ships, as well as the Project 1144.2 guided-missile cruiser Admiral Nakhimov. Krivoruchko is confident that the Tsirkon will enter service in 2020 and 2021, confirming plans to develop a ground-based version of the system (Profile.ru, May 10). Boris Obnosov, the general director of the Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation, explained that the Tsirkon advances in stand-off strike systems are part of “several dozen” hypersonic projects currently in development (RIA Novosti, May 16).The planned Tsirkon-capable submarine initiative involves standardizing the launch tubes to allow the firing of Kalibr, Onyx and Tsirkon cruise missiles. Izvestia offered more detail on the Northern Fleet exercise in December 2019 to test the use of the Tsirkon by launching the missile from under the ice. The nuclear submarine Severodvinsk took part in the exercise in the Arctic region, and it completed ascent and diving, while conducting training launches of cruise missiles. The defense ministry has also approved the final plan for the deployment of the Project 885M (Yasen-M) nuclear submarine. Among the seven submarines that will arrive in the VMF, five will be sent to the Northern Fleet (Izvestia, June 10).Tsirkon hypersonic cruise missiles seems set to become a commonplace feature in the armory of the VMF, which will increase firepower and precision strike options. The prioritizing of the Pacific Fleet implies Moscow’s interest in the APR will be strengthened in the years ahead, while the Northern and Black Sea fleets will also benefit from the rush to outfit surface and sub-surface vessels with conventional cruise missiles.
Sen. Michael Gianaris and Long Island City (NY Senate, Wikipedia)State lawmakers are looking to drastically scale back a pair of outer borough subsidy programs that became huge points of contention during Amazon’s attempted move to Queens.New York’s Relocation and Employment Assistance Program – or REAP – and the state’s Industrial & Commercial Abatement Program – ICAP – are scheduled to sunset this summer and in early 2022, respectively.Both programs were relatively obscure until they became part of the package designed to lure Amazon to New York in the tech giant’s nationwide “HQ2” hunt.But now Queens state Sen. Michael Gianaris, who emerged as one of the leading opponents of the Amazon deal and has been widely credited (or blamed) for helping to kill it, says he is taking the expirations as an opportunity to reform the programs.“The things need to be capped so that no one project can avail itself of hundreds of millions, if not over a billion dollars, the way Amazon was doing,” he told The Real Deal on Tuesday, “so I’d like to start there.”Although ICAP’s sunset date is almost two years later than REAP’s, Gianaris said it made more sense to alter both programs at the same time since many reforms being discussed are similar. He maintained that there was a strong appetite in Albany for changing them and said he does not expect them to be renewed in their current form.The REAP program offers tax credits for companies that move jobs from outside of New York City or below 96th Street in Manhattan to the outer boroughs or above 96th Street. Companies receive a tax credit of $3,000 for 12 years per employee. Amazon could have received about $900 million in benefits from the program, according to an analysis by TRD.The ICAP program gives property tax abatements for up to 25 years to companies building or improving industrial and commercial buildings anywhere in the city except south of 96th Street and north of Murray, Frankfort and Dover Streets in Manhattan. The program would have provided a roughly $386 million abatement to Amazon, according to the city.Greg LeRoy, executive director of the policy center Good Jobs First, echoed Gianaris’ point that capping the programs would make for the most significant reform.“You just need to say, each project can only get $10 milion, or each corporate parent can only get $25 million, or each job can only get $15,000,” he said.“If there’s a rational god in Albany,” he continued, “the programs would get capped.”Maria Doulis, vice president at the nonprofit civic group Citizens Budget Commission, said that if REAP is renewed, it’s important that it gets regularly evaluated in order to determine what benefits it is offering New York and whether it is still necessary.“At a minimum, if it’s reauthorized, it needs to include a commitment to regularly and routinely evaluate the program,” she said.The New York City Economic Development Corp. has been a strong supporter of the subsidies in the past. EDC spokesperson Danielle Schlanger released a statement expressing continued support for these types of programs while allowing that changes to them could be on the way.“Outer borough job growth is a longstanding priority of ours; It lessens commute times, reduces burdens on infrastructure and improves quality of life,” she said. “We should make sure that programs to encourage outer borough commercial growth are efficient and working well, and we look forward to discussing them with the legislature.” This content is for subscribers only.Subscribe Now
Arts First, Harvard’s annual festival of students in the arts, will celebrate its 15th anniversary May 3 through May 6. Sponsored by Harvard University’s Board of Overseers, the festival involves more than 2,000 students presenting some 200 concerts, theatrical and dance productions, multimedia presentations, exhibitions, and public artworks.The Office for the Arts (OfA), which produces the festival, has recently announced its sponsorship of 32 of the many projects taking place during the Arts First weekend.Funded projects combine artistic merit, artistic experimentation, and educational benefit to undergraduates. They must also provoke a ripple effect within the University, involving the undergraduate population and providing visibility for their artistic efforts.OfA will also offer grants for projects taking place during the fall semester 2007. The deadline for OfA Grant applications for projects occurring in the fall is May 9. For further information, visit http://www.fas.harvard.edu/ofa.OfA grants for danceHarvard Ballet Company, Jessica Becker ’09: OfA Grant for a performance featuring works created by members of the company.Arts First Dance Festival 2007, Crimson Dance Team, Kristin Calandrelli ’10: OfA Grant for the Crimson Dance Team’s presentation of routines incorporating elements of jazz, funk, gymnastics, and ballet.“Caichawu — The Tea Pickers,” Kevin Koo ’07: OfA Grant for a dance depicting tea pickers from the Jiangnan region of China harvesting green tea.Harvard Bellydance Initiative, Anna Resnick ’09: OfA Grant for a performance featuring examples of Middle Eastern dance.Harvard Bhangra, Kunal Raygor ’10: OfA Grant for a presentation of Bhangra culture and dance from the South Asian state of Punjab.OfA grant for literatureArts First poetry reading, “The Gamut,” Emily Vasiliauskas ’07: OfA Grant for a reading by student poets.OfA grants for multidisciplinary arts“Art In Progress,” Tuesday Magazine, Andrea Jonas ’08: OfA Grant for a display of artworks seen at different stages of their production.“Identity Check,” Harvard College Student Advocates for Human Rights, Ohnmar Khin ’08: OfA Grant for a performance piece exploring the idea of subverted identities.OfA grants for music“A Tchaikovsky Showcase,” Mozart Society Orchestra, Lisa Choe ’09: OfA Grant for a concert of selected excerpts from the works of Tchaikovsky.The Harvard Undergraduate Drummers (THUD), Paul Mumma ’09: OfA Grant for THUD’s annual Arts First performance.“All Your Bass Are Belong To Us: Exploring the Tuba,” Harvard University Tuba Ensemble, Maxwell Mishkin ’09: OfA Grant for a concert spanning works from the Baroque period to modern.Chamber concert, Brattle Street Chamber Players, Matthew Schwede ’10: OfA Grant for a concert featuring student chamber groups.Harvard Brass Lite performance, Zachary Vaughn ’10: OfA Grant for the concert debut of a new student group, including student-written compositions.Harvard Percussion Quartet, James Collins ’09: OfA Grant for a concert featuring several works for percussion ensemble, including “The Third Construction” by John Cage.Mahler’s “Symphony No. 2 in C Minor,” Holden Choirs and Harvard Radcliffe Orchestra, Christine Li Barron ’09: OfA Grant for a performance of one of Mahler’s most popular pieces.“Music of the Thomaskirche,” Holden Chamber Ensembles, Saee Gopal Paliwal ’07: OfA Grant for a concert featuring a program of sacred music composed by J.S. Bach’s predecessors at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig.Harvard Pops Orchestra performance, Anne Lewandowski ’09: OfA Grant for the Harvard Pops Orchestra’s performance for the Arts First showcase, a preview of the orchestra’s 10th anniversary concert (scheduled for May 6) featuring fan favorites and student-composes film scores.“Scenes and Arias Concert,” Dunster House Opera Society, Matthew Spellberg ’09: OfA Grant for performance of selections from Mozart’s “The Marriage of Figaro” and other popular opera selections.“Harvard Musical Winds,” Harvard Wind Ensemble, Grace Schroer ’09: OfA Grant for a concert featuring repertoire highlights as well as works composed or arranged by Harvard alumni or faculty including Leroy Anderson ’29, A.M. ’30 and Leonard Bernstein ’39.“Shape-note Songs at Arts First,” Dudley Sacred Harp Singing, Neil Strickland ’08: OfA Grant for a performance of sacred harp singing.“Music for Percussion,” Harvard Percussion Quartet, Danielle Lehle ‘07: OfA Grant for a concert using various instruments featuring jazz-style, drum-intensive, and mixed percussion pieces.“Swing to Spring,” Harvard Sunday Jazz Band, Brett Harrison ’10: OfA Grant for a performance including works of Count Basie and others for the Arts First picnic (May 5).“Peer Gynt and The Magic Flute,” Harvard University Flute Ensemble (HUFE), Rose Mason ’09: OfA Grant in support of the ensemble’s participation in the Arts First performance fair.The Schoenberg Chamber Project, Giancarlo Garcia ’08: OfA Grant for a performance of Gustav Mahler’s “Songs of a Wayfarer” in an arrangement completed by Arnold Schoenberg in 1920.OfA grants for theater“Hansel and Gretel,” Sunken Garden Children’s Theater (SGCT), Mary Birnbaum ’07: Estate of Timothy S. Mayer Grant for SGCT’s 11th annual Arts First performance.Immediate Gratification Players’ Improv Comedy Dinner Party, Jonah Kanin ’08: Estate of Timothy S. Mayer Grant for an improv comedy show in which everyone in the audience is a guest at a dinner party.“The Boxing Match: An Arrangement of Short Plays,” Aileen Robinson ’08: Estate of Timothy S. Mayer Grant for a production of six short plays by Bertolt Brecht.“Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?,” Harvard-Radcliffe Dramatic Club, Olivia Benowitz ’09: Estate of Timothy S. Mayer Grant for a Loeb Experimental Theatre production of Edward Albee’s classic.OfA grant for traditional cultural artsQian Hong, Asian-American dance troupe, Diana Lu ’09: OfA Grant for a performance of a traditional fan dance in the style of the Han tribe of China fused with modern dance and ballet influences.OfA grants for visual arts“Closing the Loop: Recycled Art,” Resource Efficiency Program (REP), Meredith Lanoue ’07: OfA Grant for a sculpture made by freshman “eco-Rep” volunteers of the Resource Efficiency Program. REP is a green-living program composed of undergraduate students who serve as environmental and sustainability representatives and resources for their Houses, using reclaimed materials, including aluminum cans, glass and ceramic shards, discarded CDs, and old incandescent light bulbs.“Exposing Nooks and Crannies of Harvard,” Sonali Palchaudhuri ’07: OfA Grant for a student photography exhibit to be part of Eliot House’s Arts First exhibit.“Night at the Sackler,” Organization of Undergraduate Representatives of the Harvard University Art Museums, Anna Chen ’09: OfA Grant for an event at the Sackler Art Museum designed to provide an introduction to and create an interest in the Harvard museums.Sustainability photography collage, REP, Hayley Fink ’08: OfA Grant for a large photography collage supporting the benefits of sustainable living by exploring diverse visions of sustainability at Harvard.“Vend a Friend,” Sabrina Chou ’09: OfA Grant for a project that explores human interactions on a large scale, through the creation and vending of life-sized, cardboard cutout “friends” throughout campus.“Without Words, Without Translation,” Stefan Rubin-Zebrowski ’08: OfA Grant in support of a photography exhibit featuring Italian life and landscape.
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMore”A former separatist rebel has been sworn in as the first directly elected governor of Indonesia’s Aceh province,” reports the BBC. He won last December’s elections after a peace deal between the government and rebels from the Free Aceh Movement ended nearly 30 years of civil conflict that had killed 15,000 people. This cooperation between former foes blossomed as a direct result of the disasterous tsunami of 2004… Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which triggered a tsunami that devastated much of the western coast of the region, including part of the capital of Banda Aceh. From 130,000 – 238,000 persons were dead or missing, with a further 500,000 plus being made homeless. This led to the signing of a peace agreement on August 15, 2005 between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ GAM was a separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region of Sumatra from Indonesia. GAM declared a ceasefire of hostilities to allow for aid to reach within the disputed area. In turn, the Indonesian government temporarily removed restrictions of northern Sumatra to allow for rescue efforts in that area. Following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian Government, the organisation surrendered its separatist intentions, dissolved its armed wing, and agreed to disarm. In return, a presidential decree granted amnesty to about five hundred former GAM members who were in exile in other countries, including the leadership, and unconditionally released about 1,400 members who had been jailed by the Government. Indonesia agreed to facilitate the establishment of Aceh-based political parties; this had been one of the most contentious issues in previous negotiations. A “truth and reconciliation commission” will be organized. On the question of the uneven distribution of income, it was settled that 70 percent of the income from local natural resources will stay within Aceh. (Source: Wikipedia) AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMore
The Factor001 team at bf1systems has released its official specification document for the advanced Factor001s (standard) and Factor001e (electronic) road bikes. This document details all of the technical specifications of both the standard and electronic version of this truly modern training aid for the serious athlete.Billed as ‘the most advanced bicycle in the world’, the specification document is split into two sections. The Factor001s specification details all of the frame geometry and components. The Factor001e specification details the full system highlights and electronic instrumentation on this bicycle.www.factor001.com Related
It has been confirmed today (Wednesday 20 May) that the 2020 Prudential RideLondon festival of cycling in the UK capital has been cancelled. This decision has been taken by London authorities after engagement with partners involved in the planning of the event.The eighth edition of ‘the world’s greatest festival of cycling’ was scheduled to take place on the weekend of 15-16 August. It was scheduled to feature four mass participation events: the Prudential RideLondon-Surrey 19, 46 and 100 sportives, plus Prudential RideLondon FreeCycle, a free-for-all event that invites cyclists to pedal round seven miles of traffic-free roads in central London.The festival was also due to feature two professional races: the UCI WorldTour Prudential RideLondon-Surrey Classic and Prudential RideLondon Classique, in addition to the Prudential RideLondon Cycling Show at ExCeL London and the Brompton World Championship Final.Hugh Brasher, Event Director of Prudential RideLondon, said “We know how disappointing this news will be to the tens of thousands of riders who were hoping to participate in one of the fantastic events in the world’s greatest festival of cycling, for the thousands of charities that would have benefited from fundraising and for the world’s best professional cyclists who love racing on the streets of London and Surrey, but I am sure everyone will understand why this decision has been made.“All participants and charities that bought places in the 2020 Prudential RideLondon will be refunded their entry fee in full.“We are currently working with Prudential and the Mayor’s Office to see how we can celebrate the event weekend of 15 and 16 August.“2021 will be the first year of a new contract to deliver RideLondon and, with the current unknowns about the short-term future for mass participation events and the importance of inspiring as many people as possible to cycle more often, we’re taking the opportunity to fully review the format and timing of the event over the next few months.”Will Norman, the London Mayor’s Walking & Cycling Commissioner, said “RideLondon has been one of the highlights of the capital’s event calendar for the last seven years, so it is obviously disappointing that it cannot be staged this year.“This summer we hope that millions of Londoners will alter their travel habits by making journeys by bike instead of driving or using public transport. But it is absolutely the right decision to cancel this year’s event to ensure the safety of everyone involved and we all look forward to welcoming RideLondon back again in the near future.”He continued, “The Mayor and I would like to thank Prudential, in their final year as title sponsors, for their support over the last seven years. We are already excited about the next RideLondon event.”In its first seven editions, Prudential RideLondon has become the world’s greatest festival of cycling, with 100,000 riders of all ages and abilities participating in seven different events on traffic-free roads in London and Surrey. It has inspired hundreds of thousands of people to take up cycling or cycle more often and a total of more than £77 million has been raised for thousands of charities.Event Director Hugh Brasher added “We know that there will be many, many questions from riders, charities and others and we ask you to please bear with us as we work through all the detail. We expect to be in a position to provide full updates to participants and charities by the middle of June. We will also post regular updates on our website and social media channels.”www.prudentialridelondon.co.uk Related
Goldberg wins Bar Journal writing award G oldberg wins Bar Journal writing award Fred O. Goldberg was selected as the recipient of the 2011 Florida Bar Journal Excellence in Writing Award by the Journal & News Editorial Board for his article “Enforcement of Settlements: A Jurisdictional Perspective” (July/Aug 2011).Each year, a committee of the editorial board selects a recipient of the award based on the writing quality, substance, difficulty, and style of the article.Goldberg is a shareholder with Berger Singerman’s dispute resolution team in Miami. His practice concentrates in complex commercial litigation in state and federal courts, including real estate and mortgage-related disputes, jurisdictional and venue issues, and domestic and international arbitrations and appeals. He received his undergraduate degree from Brandeis University and his J.D. from Suffolk University Law School.The article is available on the Journal ’s website, www.floridabar.org/journal. June 15, 2012 Regular News
Share Email Share on Facebook Pinterest Share on Twitter A University of Southampton-led study has found that blocking a receptor in the brain responsible for regulating immune cells could protect against the memory and behaviour changes seen in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.The research, published today in the journal Brain, was jointly funded by the MRC (Medical Research Council) and Alzheimer’s Research UK.It was originally thought that Alzheimer’s disease disturbs the brain’s immune response, but this latest study adds to evidence that inflammation in the brain can in fact drive the development of the disease. The findings suggest that by reducing this inflammation, progression of the disease could be halted. LinkedIn The team hope the discovery will lead to an effective new treatment for the disease, for which there is currently no cure.The researchers at the University of Southampton used tissue samples from healthy brains and those with Alzheimer’s, both of the same age. The researchers counted the numbers of a particular type of immune cell, known as microglia, in the samples and found that these were more numerous in the brains with Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the activity of the molecules regulating the numbers of microglia correlated with the severity of the disease.The researchers then studied these same immune cells in mice which had been bred to develop features of Alzheimer’s. They wanted to find out whether blocking the receptor responsible for regulating microglia, known as CSF1R, could improve cognitive skills. They gave the mice oral doses of an inhibitor that blocks CSF1R and found that it could prevent the rise in microglia numbers seen in untreated mice as the disease progressed. In addition, the inhibitor prevented the loss of communication points between the nerve cells in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s, and the treated mice demonstrated fewer memory and behavioural problems compared with the untreated mice.Importantly, the team found the healthy number of microglia needed to maintain normal immune function in the brain was maintained, suggesting the blocking of CSF1R only reduces excess microglia.What the study did not find is a correlated reduction of the number of amyloid plaques in the brain, a characteristic feature of Alzheimer’s disease. This supports previous studies that argue other factors may play more of role in cognitive decline.Dr Diego Gomez-Nicola, lead author of the study and an MRC New Investigator Research Grant (NIRG) fellow at the University of Southampton, said: “These findings are as close to evidence as we can get to show that this particular pathway is active in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.“The next step is to work closely with our partners in industry to find a safe and suitable drug that can be tested to see if it works in humans.”Dr Rob Buckle, director of science programmes at the MRC, added: “It is increasingly clear that inflammation is a key player in a number of neurodegenerative conditions and this study is beginning to unravel the biological processes behind this link.“The study is an excellent example of how basic research can lead to promising partnerships with industry that could be of real benefit for those with dementia.”Dr Simon Ridley, Director of Research at Alzheimer’s Research UK, said: “This work, looking at the role of the immune system in Alzheimer’s disease, suggests that blocking the action of the CSF1R protein in mice could help limit the damaging effects of inflammation and protect against symptoms like memory loss. In the last few years, scientists in Southampton have been at the forefront of research into the role of the immune system in Alzheimer’s, so it is encouraging to see this study taking these ideas forward by identifying a specific mechanism that could be a target for future treatments.“Alzheimer’s Research UK is delighted to be supporting the next phase of this work as the researchers seek to build on these findings and develop drugs that could block the action of CSF1R in people. Research like this is vital as there are currently no treatments that can stop or slow the progression of Alzheimer’s in the brain. We desperately need to see greater investment in research, if we are to find new ways to help the tens of thousands of people who develop Alzheimer’s in this country every year.”Dr Gomez-Nicola and his colleagues at the University of Southampton will continue their work with funding from the Dementia Consortium – a collaboration between Alzheimer’s Research UK, MRC Technology and pharmaceutical companies, Eisai and Lilly.